The milq course focuses on conceptual questions with a minimum of formulas. It is based on a modern, pragmatic interpretation of quantum mechanics which has emerged since the 1990s together with the experimental possibility to actually perform experiments with single quantum objects. The aim is a conceptually clear formulation of quantum physics.

Proper language plays a central role when speaking about quantum phenomena. In order to provide students with a verbal tool they can use in discussions and argumentations we formulated four “Reasoning tools” of quantum physics. They help to enable qualitative discussions of quantum physics, allow students to predict quantum mechanical effects qualitatively and help to avoid learning difficulties. They form a “beginners’ axiomatic system” for quantum mechanics.

  • Rule 1 – Statistical behavior: A result of a single event cannot be predicted, it is random! Only statistical predictions (for many repetitions) are possible in quantum physics.
  • Rule 2 – Ability to interfere: Single quantum object can contribute to an interference pattern, if there are more than one classically possible ways leading to the same experiment result. None of this ways will than “realize” in a classical sense.
  • Rule 3 – Unique measurement results: Although a quantum object in a state does not have a fixed value of the measured quantity, you always find a unique measurement result. Repeating the same measurement may give a different result, though.
  • Rule 4 (Complementarity): “Which way” information and an information about an interference pattern are mutually exclusive. Quantum object cannot be prepared in a defined position with a defined momentum at the same time.

Download a presentation on milq and the reasoning tools (GIREP2019)

We hope you will enjoy working with the reasoning tools. Now have a look at the milq course which is presented on the following pages.

Rainer Müller
Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany